Correlation of Vitamin D Levels with COVID-19 Severity and Outcome

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Gurdeep Kaur
Gaurav Sharma
Jainendra Sharma
Shweta Biyani
Ranjna Veerwal


Background and aims: Low vitamin D levels have been associated with an increase in inflammatory cytokines and a significantly increased risk of pneumonia and viral upper respiratory tract infections. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increase in thrombotic episodes, which are frequently observed in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These conditions are reported to carry a higher mortality in COVID-19. So, we conducted a study to prove the correlation of vitamin D levels with COVID-19 infection and severity. Material and methods: The present study was conducted at RNT Medical College, Udaipur, Rajasthan. This study was done over a period of 2 months after getting approval from Institutional Ethics Committee. Written and informed consent was obtained from patients. In this study, 81 patients admitted in COVID wards and ICU, with COVID reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) positive reports were included. Results: Out of a total 81 patients, 37 (45.7%) were in the 41-60 years age group, 29 (35.8%) were more than 60 years of age and 15 (18.5%) were less than 40 years of age. Seventeen patients had severe vitamin D deficiency, 27 patients had moderate vitamin D deficiency, 20 patients had mild vitamin D deficiency and 17 patients had normal vitamin D level. Out of 17 patients who had severe vitamin D deficiency, 11 (64.7%) patients required invasive mechanical ventilation and out of these 17 patients, 13 (76.47%) patients died. Out of 17 patients who had normal level of vitamin D, 16 (94.1%) maintained SpO2 at room air and only 1 patient required invasive mechanical ventilation. As the level of vitamin D increased from severely low to normal level, requirement of high oxygen support decreased and SpO2 at room air increased. Mean of vitamin D among the patients who died was 10.4963 while mean of vitamin D level among patients who survived and were discharged was 27.2362. All 17 patients who had normal level of vitamin D were discharged from the hospital. Mean of serum ferritin and mean of interleukin (IL)-6 was high in patients who died and low in patients who were discharged. Conclusions: Vitamin D level plays an important role in COVID-19 disease. Vitamin D have significant role in protection from severe form of disease.

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Gurdeep Kaur, Gaurav Sharma, Jainendra Sharma, Shweta Biyani, & Ranjna Veerwal. (2022). Correlation of Vitamin D Levels with COVID-19 Severity and Outcome. Indian Journal Of Clinical Practice, 33(1), 30–34. Retrieved from
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