Spectrum of Skin Manifestations in CKD: A Tertiary Care Center Experience from North India

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HK Aggarwa
Deepak Jain
Lokender Yadav
Arpit Aggarwal
Jasminder Singh


Introduction: Dermal manifestations in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients may range from mild ones, like xerosis, skin pallor, pruritus, coated tongue, superficial infections and hair and nail changes, to severe life-threatening ones, like nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, which is a rare entity in current times. The present study was done to evaluate the spectrum of mucocutaneous manifestations in patients with CKD and to look for an association between them and various biochemical parameters and inflammatory markers. Material and methods: This study was a 1 year prospective, observational study conducted on adult patients with CKD who presented to the Nephrology clinic in Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak. Patients between the ages of 17 and 75 years with CKD stages II or more with dermatological conditions were included in this study. Each participant was subjected to detailed clinical, biochemical, radiological and dermatological examination by same consultants in order to avoid interpersonal variations. Various skin, mucosal, nail and hair manifestations along with cutaneous infections were analyzed across the spectrum of CKD. Results: Among cutaneous infections, fungal infections predominated, amongst which, onychomycosis was the most common. Xerosis was the most common dermatological disease and the prevalence of xerosis, skin pallor and pruritus was found to increase significantly from Stage II to Stage V and VD of CKD in a statistically significant manner. An association was found between xerosis and decreasing levels of hemoglobin and while ferritin was not different between patients with and without xerosis, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) was significantly higher in patients with xerosis. Similarly, hs-CRP levels were significantly elevated in patients with xerostomia and nail pallor as compared with those who did not have these conditions. Lastly, patients with nail pallor had significantly lower albumin. Conclusion: It was observed in our study that in CKD patients on hemodialysis and on conservative management, xerosis, pruritus, pigmentation, nail changes, oral mucosa changes and cutaneous infections were the predominant cutaneous manifestations. In patients with CKD, mucocutaneous manifestations progressively worsened as renal function deteriorated.

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HK Aggarwa, Deepak Jain, Lokender Yadav, Arpit Aggarwal, & Jasminder Singh. (2022). Spectrum of Skin Manifestations in CKD: A Tertiary Care Center Experience from North India. Indian Journal Of Clinical Practice, 32(11), 12–19. Retrieved from https://ojs.ijcp.in/IJCP/article/view/478
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